Frederik (Frits) Bolkestein
EU Commissioner for the Internal Market
Frits Bolkestein is the European Union’s Commissioner for the Internal Market. As such, he is responsible for overseeing the internal market, taxation and the customs union.
Mr. Bolkestein graduated from Gemeentelijke Universiteit in Amsterdam, and also holds a Master at Law from the University of Leiden.
He began his professional career in 1960 with the Shell Group with posts all over the world including East Africa, Honduras, El Salvador, London, Indonesia and Paris. From 1973-76 Mr. Bolkestein was the director of Shell Chimie, Paris.
He began his political career in 1978. From 1982-86 Mr. Bolkestein was the Netherlands’ Minister of Foreign Trade, and from 1988-89 the Minister of Defense. In 1999 he left the Dutch Parliament as the leader of the People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) to become a member of the European Commission.
Mr. Bolkestein has written books and articles on a variety of topics, and currently is also a member of the Royal Institute of International Affairs in London.